The term “sugar” can be used to either refer specifically to sucrose or it can be used generally to refer to all simple sugars (lactose, glucose, fructose, galactose, sucrose, etc.).
Liquid or paste that is produced when cacao (cocoa) nibs are finely ground. As defined by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA), it must contain between 50%-60% (by weight) cocoa butter (cacao fat), and may also be called unsweetened chocolate, baking chocolate, bitter chocolate, or chocolate liquor. It does not contain alcohol.
A flour prepared by grinding wheat, removing its water content and fortifying it with vitamins and minerals such as niacin, ferrous sulfate, thiamin mononitrate, riboflavin and folic acid.
A type of wheat flour.
Milk from which the fat has been removed. Also known as skim milk.
The naturally occurring fat obtained from cacao (cocoa) beans either before or after roasting. Cocoa butter is a unique vegetable fat extracted from cacao (cocoa) beans or chocolate liquor. Its unique fatty acid composition, including palmitic, stearic, oleic and linolenic acids, provides the pleasant mouth-feel and flavor release of chocolate products.
The fat that occurs naturally in milk. Also referred to as butter fat.
Oil that is obtained from the pulp of the palm fruit. It is different from palm kernel oil, which is obtained from the kernel of the palm fruit.
A liquid sweetener with a sweetness level similar to table sugar. HFCS is produced from corn through the enzymatic conversion of glucose into fructose. Also called glucose/fructose in Canada or abbreviated as HFCS. The most commonly used form of HFCS is nearly identical to the composition of table sugar.
A simple sugar obtained most often from corn, but can be obtained from other sources as well, such as wheat, sorghum, and tapioca. Also known as glucose.
Starch derived from corn that has been modified with a permitted starch-modifying agent. Used as a thickener.
A sweetener made from corn starch. Also known as glucose syrup.
A protein of animal origin used to thicken and stabilize foods.
A fine powder that has a slightly salty taste. Often used to help baked goods rise. Also known as sodium bicarbonate.
A sweet, sticky fluid made by honey bees that has a comparable sweetness to table sugar.
A sweetener obtained from the process of converting sugarcane or sugar beets into sugar that is strongly flavored and dark in color.
A natural flavor enhancer and preservative. Also known as table salt or sodium chloride.
A substance found in the oil component of certain plants and eggs that acts as an emulsifier, to prevent ingredients from separating. Sources of lecithin include soy (soya), rice, sunflower, and eggs.