The term “sugar” can be used to either refer specifically to sucrose or it can be used generally to refer to all simple sugars (lactose, glucose, fructose, galactose, sucrose, etc.).
A flour prepared by grinding wheat, removing its water content and fortifying it with vitamins and minerals such as niacin, ferrous sulfate, thiamin mononitrate, riboflavin and folic acid.
Milk from which the fat has been removed. Also known as skim milk.
Oils that are derived from plants such as soybean, sunflower and safflower.
Oils that are less susceptible to rancidity because they have had their double bonds replaced with hydrogen, similar to saturated fatty acids. The process also results in a more solid fat at room temperature.
Cocoa powder that has been treated with alkalizing agents to reduce the bitter flavor, resulting in a milder tasting cocoa when compared to cocoa powder. Also known as Dutched Cocoa.
A liquid sweetener with a sweetness level similar to table sugar. HFCS is produced from corn through the enzymatic conversion of glucose into fructose. Also called glucose/fructose in Canada or abbreviated as HFCS. The most commonly used form of HFCS is nearly identical to the composition of table sugar.
A flour prepared by grinding corn and removing its water content.
A natural flavor enhancer and preservative. Also known as table salt or sodium chloride.
Starch derived from corn, used as a thickener.
Liquid or paste that is produced when cacao (cocoa) nibs are finely ground. As defined by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA), it must contain between 50%-60% (by weight) cocoa butter (cacao fat), and may also be called unsweetened chocolate, baking chocolate, bitter chocolate, or chocolate liquor. It does not contain alcohol.
A food additive that adds or enhances the flavor of food and drinks and is made from components obtained by chemical synthesis.
A simple sugar obtained most often from corn, but can be obtained from other sources as well, such as wheat, sorghum, and tapioca. Also known as glucose.
A substance found in the oil component of certain plants and eggs that acts as an emulsifier, to prevent ingredients from separating. Sources of lecithin include soy (soya), rice, sunflower, and eggs.
A fine powder that has a slightly salty taste. Often used to help baked goods rise. Also known as sodium bicarbonate.